Download Applied Scanning Probe Methods II: Scanning Probe Microscopy by Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs PDF

By Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs

Volumes II, III and IV learn the actual and technical beginning for fresh development in utilized near-field scanning probe options, and construct upon the 1st quantity released in early 2004. the sector is progressing so quickly that there's a desire for a moment set of volumes to trap the most recent advancements. It constitutes a well timed accomplished evaluate of SPM purposes, now that commercial functions span topographic and dynamical floor experiences of thin-film semiconductors, polymers, paper, ceramics, and magnetic and organic fabrics. quantity II introduces scanning probe microscopy, together with sensor know-how, quantity III covers the full diversity of characterization probabilities utilizing SPM and quantity IV deals chapters on makes use of in quite a few business functions. The foreign viewpoint provided in those 3 volumes - which belong jointly - contributes additional to the evolution of SPM suggestions.

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Extra info for Applied Scanning Probe Methods II: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques (NanoScience and Technology) (v. 2)

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R. cn James D. edu U. es Jayne C. ch B. edu Joseph M. com William P. edu Brent A. R. cn XLIII 1 Higher Harmonics in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy Robert W. 1 Introduction Aside from its ability to image and visualize the specimen, atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers the potential to perform a wide variety of quantitative measurements. For example, indenting the surface of a polymer with the tip allows us to characterize its viscoelastic properties, while long-range electrostatic forces can be used to detect the number of charges stored in a semiconductor nanostructure.

More information is available from analyzing further signal components or the entire spectral response. Although the free cantilever can be approximated by a onedimensional harmonic oscillator for many applications [11], the broadband signal formation can only be understood by taking higher eigenmodes into account (see Fig. 1). When approaching the surface, the oscillation amplitude is confined by the sample surface on one side, creating an analogy to the “impact oscillators” studied in structural mechanics [12–15].

14) can be linearized [34], leading to kts∗ = − ∂ Fts (z) ∂z = z=z 0 −HR/ 3 (z s + z 0 )3 √ 2E ∗ R (a0 − z s − z 0 )1/2 D ≥ a0 D < a0 . 15) In the following sections, the contact stiffness kts∗ is normalized to the cantilever spring constant k by kˆ ts = kts∗ /k. Electrostatic Forces Aside from the attractive van der Waals forces, the electrostatic interaction between the tip and the sample is another source of higher harmonics generation. 1), it is clear that a nonlinear electrostatic interaction is also present during imaging due to a contact potential difference, since dC(D)/ dD is not linear.

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