By Neal T. Wright & Jaewan Yoon (Editors)
Program of GIS applied sciences in Port amenities and Operations administration discusses the hot advances in GIS (Geographic details structures) applied sciences for port execs. This committee file identifies potent GIS options for the administration of complicated port and harbor infrastructure and discusses in-depth the features, necessities, and obstacles of obtainable GIS functions. It additionally presents necessary GIS database strategies and software program integration counsel, an outline and dialogue of GIS info forms and map projections, and a number of other case reports concentrating on facility and operations administration
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Additional resources for Application of GIS Technologies in Port Facilities and Operations Management
However, GPS measurement systems can be described at a variety of scales, but the most complex is the scale of a network of receivers. Many engineering projects involve detailed data collection and analysis at this scale and, when the time dimension is included, the complexity increases. Consider a project in which hundreds of receivers are placed at strategic locations on a long-span suspension bridge to capture, in real time, the bridge performance in response to live traffic, 19 20 APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS wind, seismic, and temperature loads (Fig.
This translates to about 3 to 6 m. Figure 2-12. Time-shift from PRN codes (the “slide” needed to match them is the travel time). GPS POSITIONING AND MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES Carrier Phase-Based Range Determination In carrier phase-based ranging, the satellite–receiver distance is estimated using the satellite’s carrier signal instead of the coded messages contained within. Identifying the cycle being received allows for sub-meter accuracy (the L1 wavelength is about 19 cm). Identifying the phase position in a cycle allows sub-centimeter accuracy (3 or 4 mm!
The troposphere is that band of the atmosphere from the Earth’s surface to about 50 km. The tropospheric delay is a function of elevation and altitude of the receiver, and is dependent on many factors such as the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and water vapor content. The tropospheric delay ranges from approximately 1 m for signals at the zenith to about 10 m for signals at an elevation angle of 10 deg. Multipath Errors Multipath is the error caused by nearby reflecting surfaces at the receiver location.