By Hans-Georg Joost, Hadi Al-Hasani, Annette Schürmann
Detailing the most recent protocols for learning animal types of diabetes, in particular resistant teams of rodents reminiscent of the NOD mouse, and together with professional recommendation on implementation, this can be a useful new quantity within the tools in Molecular Biology sequence.
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Extra resources for Animal Models in Diabetes Research
GIMAP5 is a putative small GTPase, and its cellular localization has been reported in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosomes, and related compartments (13–15). Absence of the protein encoded by Gimap5 in T cells causes mitochondrial dysfunction, increased mitochondrial levels of stress-inducible chaperonins, and T cell specific spontaneous apoptosis (16). T cell death is initiated through disruptions in ER homeostasis mediated by the C/EBPhomologous protein (CHOP) apoptotic pathway (17). 2. 1.
41. 42. 43. 44. Diabetic Kidney Injury in Akita Mice 29 disease and healthy controls. Am J Kidney Dis 51:613–623 Reich HN et al (2008) Decreased glomerular and tubular expression of ACE2 in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease. Kidney Int 74:1610–1616 Wong DW et al (2007) Loss of angiotensinconverting enzyme-2 (Ace2) accelerates diabetic kidney injury. Am J Pathol 171:438–451 Oudit GY et al (2010) Human recombinant ACE2 reduces the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes 59:529–538 Poplawski MM et al (2011) Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.
11. The start time of the study is recorded. 12. After 24 h mice are removed from the cages and the body weight and the amount of water consumed and urine produced recorded (see Notes 4, 7, and 8). 13. 5 mL tubes (see Note 9). Store samples at −70°C. 14. Avoid repeated freeze–thaw cycles (see Note 10). 4. Notes 1. Label both urine collection tube as well as its lid for identification. Use fade and water resistant ink. This is important since spilled urine can wash away the ink. 2. Clean the food drawer each time with warm soapy water or detergent solution.