Download Analysis of Surfactants by Thomas M. Schmitt PDF

By Thomas M. Schmitt

A textual content and reference giving a pragmatic account of equipment the selection and comprehension of commercially very important person surfactants, in addition to these in compounds. Describes the make-up and structural drawings for an array of surfactants, reports thoughts for deciding upon them within the atmosphere, and extra.

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Anhydrides are also formed in the sulfonation reaction but are completely eliminated from the commercial product by a hydrolysis step during LAS production (54): A sulfone byproduct An anhydride byproduct TM Copyright n 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Usually, the extraction/gravimetric determination of unsulfonated material, as described in Section II, is sufficient. For more precise characterization of the the nature of the oil, GC, LC, and MS may be used. HPLC is capable of simultaneous determination of unsulfonated alkylbenzenes and of sulfones (54-56).

These include trace levels of tetralins and of di- and polyaromatic compounds. Analysis is via preparative HPLC separation into the major classes, followed by capillary GC/MS identification and quantification of individual components (52). In principle, this approach could also be applied to LAS, after desulfonation. (a) Elemental analysis. Elemental analysis for the atomic ratio of carbon and sulfur will give the average chain length by simple calculation. This value must be used with caution, since if the surfactant contains appreciable quantities of impurities, such as sodium sulfate or disulfonated alkylbenzene, these must be quantitatively determined and suitable corrections made.

The methanol solution is evaporated to dryness to expel CHC13, and the residue is redissolved in water or methanol. The HPLC system should be capable of ternary gradient operation and have a column compartment thermostatted at 35°C. Detection is by UV absorbance at 225 nm. 6 x 250 mm. 0 with NaOH. 0 mL/min. A linear gradient is used, beginning with 10:50:40 TBAHSO4/water/acetonitrile. During the first 30 min, ^O is lowered to 10%, increasing CH3CN to 80%. During the following 10 min, TBAHSO4 is dropped to 0%, resulting in a H2O/CH3CN isocratic system, 20:80, which is held for 15 min.

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