By Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)
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Extra resources for Agriculture in the GATT
The overall conclusion was more telling. In its third report the Committee drew the conclusion that there has been extensive resort to the use of non-tariff devices, whether or not in conformity with the General Agreement, which, in many cases, has impaired or nullified tariff concessions or other benefits which agricultural exporting countries expect to. receive from the General Agreement. Hence the Committee concluded that the balance which countries consider they had a right to receive under the General Agreement has been disturbed.
West Germany was the largest European food importer maintaining import quotas to protect its agriculture. When it was challenged at the Twelfth Session (October-November 1957), it first tried to defend its import practices on balance of payments grounds and then on the claim that the quotas were mandatory under its agricultural marketing laws, and were therefore covered under the protocol of accession it had signed in April 1951. When both these grounds were rejected, West Germany was forced to seek a waiver.
About the effects of their actions on the system as a whole' (Keohane and Nye, 1973, p. 127). The United States was not able to conform to the requirements of the General Agreement but the architect of the system could not simply ignore it without threatening to bring down the whole edifice. The waiver was granted in March 1955 to the extent 'necessary to prevent a conflict' with Section 22 (BISD 35/34-5). The other member countries had no choice but to accede to the request, for the alternative might have been the withdrawal of the United States from the GATT.