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By Ajit Sinha

This ebook attracts at the paintings of 1 of the sharpest minds of the twentieth century, Piero Sraffa. Ludwig Wittgenstein credited him for 'the such a lot consequential principles' of the Philosophical Investigations (1953) and positioned him excessive on his brief checklist of geniuses. Sraffa's innovative contribution to economics used to be, despite the fact that, misplaced to the realm simply because economists didn't be aware of the philosophical underpinnings of his economics. in accordance with exhaustive archival study, Sinha offers a thrilling new thesis that exhibits how Sraffa challenged the standard mode of theorizing when it comes to crucial and mechanical causation and, in its place, argued for a descriptive or geometrical idea in keeping with simultaneous relatives. A outcome of this technique used to be an entire removing of 'agent's subjectivity' and 'marginal strategy' or counterfactual reasoning from monetary research – the 2 basic pillars of orthodox monetary theory.

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The other cause happens to be the falling overhead costs. If the total overhead cost is fixed, or at least does not rise in proportion to the rise in output, then this would lead to a fall in the average cost, leaving the marginal cost untouched. Both of these causes, however, must be ruled out in the Marshallian context, because these causes of increasing returns would lead to the firm that takes the lead in increasing its output turning into a monopolist, which violates the assumption of a competitive market.

There are fixed ‘effectual demand’ points for every commodity, which correspond to the quantities that would be demanded, given the real income generated in the economy, when the prices of commodities are equal to their ‘natural prices’. When the output or the quantity brought to market of a commodity is lower (higher) than the given effectual demand point, then the competition among the buyers (sellers) would push the ‘market price’ of the commodity higher (lower) than its ‘natural price’. This would result in at least one of the factors that are used in its production receiving higher (lower) returns than their ‘natural rates’.

But this analogy is not apt. In the case of ‘life’ or ‘river’, neither ‘life’ nor ‘river’ can have a measure separately from concrete living organisms or flowing water. In the case of 24 A Revolution in Economic Theory Clark’s abstract notion, ‘capital’ can be measured by the monetary value of the capital goods. The problem is that, if a sum of money is ‘capital’, then how can it have productivity or marginal productivity that explains the rate of interest? That is why, after liberating ‘capital’ from physical capital goods, Clark takes a flight in the deep world of metaphysics and imbues his abstract notion with a magical power.

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