By C. J. Date
The former variation of this booklet tested itself because the so much whole and comprehensible therapy of the SQL general often on hand. Many adjustments have happened within the SQL criteria global on the grounds that that variation was once released, in spite of the fact that: a huge new part, the Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI), was once further in 1995. one other significant new part, the continual saved Modules characteristic (SQL/PSM), is nearing final touch and is because of be additional to the traditional in overdue 1996 or early 1997. the unique 1992 average itself has been considerably replaced and corrected during the ebook of 2 large Technical Corrigenda, one in 1994 and one in 1996. All of those alterations are mirrored during this Fourth variation. prior variants of this publication proven a convention of cautious, transparent, and exact clarification of complicated technical fabric. This re-creation maintains that culture.
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Rather than a single attribute in the employees table, this system allows us to remember the previous rates that an employee was paid before any raises were given. If we wanted to recalculate the cost of a project from some time ago, we would want to use the rates of pay in effect at the time and not the present ones. CREATE TABLE employee_rates ( employee_id INTEGER NOT NULL, rate DECIMAL(5,2), start_date INTEGER NOT NULL, end_date INTEGER ); Typeless Data Types The way in which SQLite stores data is built upon the realization that strong typing of data, as found in virtually every RDBMS on the market, is actually not a useful thing.
This example also shows that a column can be declared as both NOT NULL and UNIQUE. > ); 60 Part I: General SQLite Use Part I: General SQLite Use 61 sqlite> INSERT INTO vegetables (name, color) VALUES ('pepper', 'red'); sqlite> INSERT INTO vegetables (name, color) VALUES ('pepper', 'green'); SQL error: column name is not unique Resolving Conflicts NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY, and UNIQUE constraints may all be used in conjunction with an ON CONFLICT clause to specify the way a conflict should be resolved if an attempt to insert or modify data violates a column constraint.
In fact, to demonstrate the basic functions you don't even need to select from a table. sqlite> SELECT 2 + 2; 2 + 2 ---------4 sqlite> SELECT 10 - 7; 10 - 7 ---------3 sqlite> SELECT 6 * 3; 6 * 3 ---------18 sqlite> SELECT 100 / 30; 100 / 30 ---------3 Note in the division example that a rounded integer is returned. To specify that you want a floating-point result, one of the arguments must be a float itself. 33333333333333 The modulo operator is also supported, using the percent symbol, as in many other languages: sqlite> SELECT 100 % 30; 100 % 30 ---------10 You can apply such operators to a selected column in the SELECT statement.